"Background and aims: Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) was used for in vitro studies of osteosarcoma and colon carcinoma cancer cell lines to reveal the apoptotic and antineoplastic effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antineoplastic effect of ABS on bladder cancer cell cultures.
Methods: We prospectively collected minimum 0.5 cm parts of fresh frozen tumour samples from patients with bladder tumour from 2015 to 2017. Primary bladder cancer cultures were produced from the frozen tumour samples. Two different doses of ABS were used on cancer cell cultures. Viability tests of each cell cultures were performed. Flow cytometry was used for the determination of apoptosis and necroptosis. We also checked the effect of ABS on different stages, grade and variant histology of bladder cancer cells. The results of all cancer cell cultures were compared with their own controls.
Results: This study included 24 patients. Mean age of patients was 66.2 ± 11.7 years (34-83 years), where 19 of them (79.5%) were males and five (20.5%) were females. When we compared the data, we found decreased cancer cell viability ratio in each ABS group compared with their own controls. Necroptosis was observed in the great majority of ABS groups, and necroptosis and apoptosis were observed in some cell cultures.
Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of ABS on bladder cancer cells. The results of this study suggests planning of animal model of bladder cancer for ABS with intravesical application as an antineoplastic agent. In the future, ABS may be a candidate intravesical treatment agent for bladder cancer."